Saturday, January 28, 2023

Seed Insights

New cultivars or the favored Georgia-06G, remember what it takes to get a good stand. 

⋅ By Amanda Huber

Peanut breeders work with new varieties for years, but eventually state specialists get to plant the new options as well. University of Georgia Extension peanut specialist Scott Monfort offers his take on some of these cultivars and general planting reminders for the coming season.  

“Available seed is still 80% to 85% Georgia-06G,” Monfort says. “That’s what farmers will continue to plant for now because there isn’t enough seed of most of these other varieties, even if they were the best thing since sliced bread. But we’re gaining ground with some of them. One day we will make a change from Georgia-06G.” 

Take Care Of Your Seed

Monfort says if you try new varieties, just know that sometimes they act differently in the field because of the different pressures they are under. 

He also says the quality of seed for the 2022 planting season looks good, but growers can’t rely solely on that. 

The seeding rate goal is to end up with four plants per foot of row with no skips or gaps that would be a starting place for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

“Take care of your seed. If you get seed early, make sure it is put in suitable storage where there is some airflow, and it will not be exposed to high or low temperatures. Make sure the first lot in is the first seed planted.” 

Look at the seed in the bag, Monfort says. While rare, he says sometimes stand failures can be avoided if the seed doesn’t look up to par. 

Don’t Raise The Rate

The University of Georgia’s recommended seeding rate remains at 6 to 7 seed per foot of row on singles and 6 to 8 seed per foot of row on twins. However, Monfort says some growers are of a mindset that more is better.

Monfort’s New Variety Notes

Georgia-12Y

This is a management variety. I would not plant it after May 10-12 because it takes too long to mature, and the yield will plateau if planted later. Manage the vine growth with Apogee or Kudos if it’s irrigated. Also take care to manage Rhizoctonia limb rot. It is good on white mold and the best we have on spotted wilt. But, if you just put Bravo and tebuconazole on it, you will hurt yourself on this variety. It is not going to yield in every situation.

Georgia-16HO

Georgia-16HO is a good high oleic variety with more acres in production each year. We do see a problem with leaf spot if planted late or if it is not managed correctly. In trials this past year, we did see some shedding from excessive moisture. That happened on a few varieties, but this one had more pod shed than others. It still yielded within 100 to 200 pounds of Georgia-06G. 

Georgia-18RU

More acres of this variety are being planted as well. However, it is not a variety I would plant in April. It has a little more susceptibility to TSWV. I would wait to plant it until May 10 or later. For us, it has yielded well, and I think it’s going to do pretty good. If you plant anything early, use Thimet. After May 10, you can decide if you want Thimet or an additional fungicide in-furrow. 

Georgia-20VHO

This variety is so new that we have not had many acres and I am not sure where we will recommend placing it. This past year, we had a lot of shedding from the abundance of water. Because of this, we lost a lot of yield. When you can control moisture, I think it yield well. It has a different growth habit, but one that we like. We simply need more experience with it. 

TifNV-HighO/L

We’ve had very good yields with this variety. It is nearly immune to root-knot nematode, and it does well in the field. But you have a decision to make; can you put a nematicide with Georgia-06G, with that additional input cost, and make the yield that you could with TifNV-HighO/L.

AU-NPL 17 

We have had limited trials in Georgia with this variety. In the three trials I had this year, it did very well. That might be another variety you want to try in the future. 

“We’ve got some folks that are still planting too many seed at 8 to 9 per foot. In my mind, you are wasting seed because it is causing more rot. It is not gaining you any more stand. Every time you increase the number of seed per foot on an acre basis, it is costing about $18. Two to three additional seed is significant if you aren’t getting anything from it.”

The goal is to end up with four plants per foot of row on the final stand to not have skips or gaps, which is a favorite starting place for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

Additionally, because TSWV is still a threat to good yield, Monfort says if planting before May 10, use Thimet (phorate) insecticide in-furrow. “I know some growers don’t like putting it out because of the difficulty, but it is the only insecticide that reduces the risk of TSWV,” he says.

Additional items needed in-furrow are inoculants, which Monfort says are a great insurance policy that is not very expensive. Now is also the time to add a nematicide. Velum Total is an at-plant nematicide that also has some fungicide properties. It will give you some help on leaf spot, too.

AgLogic brand aldicard is another at-plant product for use on nematodes and early thrips pressure. In-furrow fungicides complements seed treatments but does not replace them.

No In-Furrow Fertilizer

Georgia-12Y is a longer-maturing cultivar that should be planted before May 10.

Monfort says he and other Extension personnel for the past two to three years have been stressing what is not needed in-furrow as much as what is needed. 

“What we do not need in-furrow is fertilizer of any kind. Some of these fertilizers are being recommended at 1, 2, and 3 gallons per acre, and we are seeing upwards of 40% to 50% stand loss. It is directly affecting germination and emergence. 

“Anything less than a gallon did not cause stand loss, but what it did do is slow emergence 1 to 3 days. This is something we are continuing to do research on and try to figure out. But I tell you something, if I put it in furrow, I want it to give something to me, not take something from me and that’s the case thus far. 

Put Seed In The Soil, Not Stubble

Monfort says to make sure to clean your planters and equipment and get everything working right. After this past year, and the amount of water in some areas fertility and pH may need extra attention. 

“We’ve got to start weed free and plant into good seed beds,” he says. “This may sound simple but be careful going in behind corn and planting into that stubble. Be sure your seed is in the soil and not the stubble. Make sure you have the correct set up, and you’re getting the stubble out of the way so the seed goes into the soil. 

“Remember conditions that are vital to getting a good start. Soil moisture should not be excessively wet but ample enough to germinate seed. Soil temperatures need to be 68 degrees in the top 4 inches of soil for at least three consecutive days. We don’t want to see a dip in temperature just after planting.” 

A final note from Monfort is to not chase moisture. “In late May we often do this, and that germinating seed will expend too much energy trying to find moisture several inches deep.” PG

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