Peanut Pointers

DAVID JORDAN
North Carolina State University
Extension Agronomist

David Jordan

David Jordan

In-furrow Compatibility Issues

If your peanuts are already in the ground, your preplant, preplant incorporated and preemergence herbicides have been applied, and your thrips and tomato spotted wilt programs are in place. Early season weed and thrips control can have a major impact on yield, and certainly achieving a desirable stand is critical.

If you are successful with these inputs and get a good stand with minimal stress for pests, you are well on your way. But if not, many people spray acephate to control thrips, and the best time is within the first 3 weeks after planting if in-furrow insecticides are not completely effective.

An early season application of paraquat plus bentazon (Basagran) can help clean up weed escapes, and adding a residual herbicide to this mix will often improve weed control during the next few weeks.

Protecting the crop during the first month is essential. While suggestions may vary from region to region, if you establish three or more plants per foot of row, you can still be successful. If you have only one or two plants per foot of row, consider dropping in with a planter and get more plants established. In the V-C region for Virginia types, we recommend a population of four to five plants per foot for optimum yield.

In weedy fields, my experience is that investment on the front end is more effective than playing catch up later in the season. Multiple herbicide applications, both contact and residuals, that keep the crop clean for the first six weeks are a great investment.

Keeping thrips from hammering peanuts also pushes the crop forward in a positive way. If you have less than ideal thrips control, be careful with paraquat, at least in the V-C region.

We’ve had a few issues with compatibility of in-furrow products with respect to inoculant performance. If you are fortunate to have new ground or fields with long rotations, you don’t want to squander that potential with an inoculant failure. Be mindful of what you put in the tank with inoculant. There are a number of things that work well with inoculant and they are fine to use. But if it is new or untested, be wary. Ask a lot of questions. Make sure the peanuts get a great start with nitrogen fixation. Correcting that problem will be equally as painful if not more painful than cleaning up pigweeds later in the season.


JASON WOODWARD
Texas Agri-Life Extension
Plant Pathologist

Test Water Quality

Jason Woodward

Jason Woodward

Irrigation is essential in maximizing yield and quality in peanut production in the Southwest. Water demand differs based on different developmental stages of the crop, and irrigation capacity often declines later in the season. Adequate soil moisture is needed for germination and stand establishment after planting, but it is most critical during the reproductive periods of bloom and pod fill.

Early season applications of irrigation are required to activate pre-emergent herbicides and enhance weed control and ensure adequate plant nutrition. Water demand is at its peak during the reproductive periods of bloom and pod fill. As pods mature, water use starts to decline; however, the soil must remain moist in order to ease digging and minimize harvest losses.

With declining irrigation levels, it is becoming more difficult to maximize yields on full circles. Many producers have opted to scale back and plant peanuts on half or quarter of a pivot. Despite these efforts, it is important to examine output across the pivot to ensure that uniform amounts are being applied. Install new nozzle packages if distribution patterns are not uniform. This is especially important when peanuts begin blooming, as high humidity within the canopy needs to be maintained in order to facilitate pollination and aid in pegging.

In addition to irrigation capacity, water quality must also be assessed sometime during the growing season. Peanut is inherently sensitive to low-quality water, especially increased salts. The accumulation of salts in foliage leads to a burn that occurs on the margin of leaves and results in a loss of vine integrity. Irrigation water with elevated levels of calcium and magnesium salts can concentrate in the soil and possibly result in deficiencies of other nutrients. Peanut seed are even more negatively affected by salt when imbibing water during germination, thus, rainfall received prior to irrigation applications made prior to or just after planting will help leach salts from the seed zone.


SCOTT MONFORT
University of Georgia
Extension Agronomist

Reduce Skippy Stand Potential

ScottMonfort

Scott Monfort

As we move into May, the lack of moisture is going to be the limiting factor for some areas. Rain chances are in the forecast, but not as consistent as growers would like to see during the planting season. With this in mind, I would caution growers not to rush the situation and cause potential problems with stands by planting in subpar conditions.

To help reduce potential planting and stand issues, please keep in mind the following points:
• Seed Germ — Keep a small sample of each lot of seed. If you have stand problems, the sample can be checked for germ and vigor.
• Keep seed stored in a cool environment until ready to plant. Try not to leave seed exposed to sun and heat for prolonged periods of time. Plant seed in the order that you received them from the sheller. Germination percentages can be affected by unfavorable storage conditions.
• Make sure to calibrate in-furrow liquid and granular applicators. Clean the system before use and make sure you do not have any stopped up tubes.
• Do not risk planting in poor conditions. For example, cool and wet, hot and dry, or marginal soil conditions. The seed cost too much to risk having to replant.
• Make sure planter is set up correctly.
• Keep liquid inoculants out of heat/sunlight. Remember to change or add new inoculants in the tank each day.
• Many new inoculants + growth stimulant mixtures sold today have not been tested by the University of Georgia. If you are going to try these products, work with your county agent to make replicated comparisons with the standard inoculant by itself.
• Do not get in a hurry planting. Increased speed can cause skippy/non-uniform stands.
• Please remember to do everything you can to reduce the risk of TSWV. Use twin row, plant 6 seed per foot, use Thimet, etc. (please refer to peanut disease risk index).
• Plant your non-irrigated fields first to make use of the moisture. You can always provide the needed moisture with irrigation.
• In dry, hot conditions, please remember to irrigate at least one-third to one-fifth inch before planting. Adding cold water from irrigation after planting in hot and dry conditions can shock peanut and lead to erratic germination and skippy stands.
• Weed control is extremely important. Try to plant in a clean field and stay ahead of any problems.

Please call your county agent if you have any questions or need any help.


KRIS BALKCOM
Auburn University
Agri-Program Associate

Kris Balkcom

Kris Balkcom

Note On Tropical Spiderwort

Since we are still the first of May and the beginning of planting for some, I would like to point out a few things during planting season. In the last peanut pointer I encouraged many of you to use an insecticide for thrips at planting this year because of the warm winter and possibility of increased thrips pressure early this year. Continue to keep an eye on those earlier planted peanuts for thrips in case an over-the-top foliar application to knock the thrips back is needed.

Also, I am seeing more tropical spiderwort (Bengal Day Flower) in Alabama the past couple of years. If you have had this troublesome weed in the past, I encourage you to be proactive and recommend that you use Strongarm and/or Dual in your herbicide program to battle against this weed.

Finally, if it continues to be quite warm, I would recommend at least banding a material early this season for white mold because it will likely be earlier in expression because of the warm winter.