Texas panicum is an aggressive, relatively large-seeded annual grass that is common in much of the peanut acreage in the United States. It has wide, almost-frizzy leaf blades and forms numerous tillers. Its vigorous fibrous root system makes clean harvest of peanuts nearly impossible.
Florida pusley is a low-growing, annual weed species that appears almost prostrate. It can be effectively controlled only with pre-plant incorporated herbicides. Florida pusley has bright green leaves with a distinctive recessed mid-vein. The stems are very hairy and may have a purplish appearance. The flowers are white with six petals in a star-shaped whorl.
Tropic croton is an upright, branching annual broadleaf with serrated leaves. Tropic croton has a rough hairy stem, but it is not as hairy as the related species, wooly croton. Its gray-brown seed are a desirable food for doves.
Red morningglory is a relatively common annual morningglory species, but often doesn’t appear until later in the season. The key identifying features are the distinct points on the leaf margin and relatively small red flowers.
Small flower morningglory is probably the most common morningglory species in the Southeast and can be a serious problem in peanut production. In the cotyledon stage, it resembles a wild radish seedling with heart-shaped cotyledons. As it grows, small flower morningglory will stand nearly erect until 12 to 18 inches tall, then it will begin to run. It has heart or spear-shaped leaves and produces small blue flowers in a head-like cluster.
Tall morningglory can be found in many peanut fields. Similar to other morningglory species, tall morningglory has a vining, prostrate appearance that envelopes the peanut canopy. Tall morningglory possesses heart-shaped leaves with over-lapping lobes at the base and slightly hairy stems.
Tropical spiderwort is an annual species similar to common dayflower. It is distinguished from dayflower by the presence of subterranean (underground) flowers. The leaves are spoon-shaped with parallel venation and blue above-ground flowers. The stems are succulent, and the plant re-roots quickly after cultivation. It spreads by seeds and is becoming one of the most prevalent and troublesome weeds in peanut production. Spiderwort germinates throughout the season, hampering control efforts.
Common lambsquarter is a small seeded annual broadleaf species particularly troublesome in the Virginia-Carolina region. It is an upright plant, which can exceed seven feet at maturity. Its arrowhead-shaped leaves grow alternately and often have a whitish dusty appearance on their undersides even in the seedling stage.
Spurred anoda is a troublesome broadleaf member of the Mallow or Cotton family most common in the Virginia-Carolina area. Its alternate toothed leaves are two to four inches long and sometimes have purplish veins. It produces small, pale blue flowers and a unique fruit that looks like a fancy ribbed pie surrounded by a star.
Wild radish is thought to be a problem in winter crops, such as small grains and canola. However, wild radish has become an increasing problem in peanuts in recent years. This plant forms a rosette of leaves that looks similar to mustard greens. The leaves have deeply indented lobes and are covered with numerous stiff hairs. As the plant matures, pale yellow flowers are produced on a seed-stalk that arises from the rosette.
Wild poinsetta is an exotic weed pest spreading in many parts of the Southeast. As a member of the Spurge Family, it has hollow stems and milky, latex-like sap. In the cotyledon stage, it resembles a weak, pale green cocklebur seedling. Mature plants can have numerous leaf shapes even on a single specimen.
Palmer amaranth is an annual pigweed species that is becoming an increasing problem because of herbicide resistance in some areas. It can reach heights well over six feet and can be very difficult to control once established. Unlike other pigweed species, Palmer amaranth has a long, slender seed head and a more robust appearance.
Hophornbeam copperleaf is a freely branching annual broadleaf weed with finely serrated leaf edges. Copperleaf has bright green leaves throughout most of the growing season, but these turn a characteristic copper color as the plant reaches maturity in the fall. There is a related species referred to as Virginia copperleaf.
Bristly starbur is an annual broadleaf weed common in much of the Southeast. In addition to the accepted common name, it is also called “goatspur” or “Texas sandspur.” It has rough textured “fuzzy” leaves and an upright but profusely branching growth habit. Its seed form with two sharp pointed prongs that make the mature plant extremely “bristly.”