North Carolina State University
Protect Those Products
In production meetings, we have discussed the challenges in pest management. In some ways, we have many tools that are very effective. Our strong yields of late have been realized by a number of factors including plant protection. Will we have everything we need in the future?
In North Carolina and surrounding states there is concern about PPO resistance. The herbicide arsenal is very slim if we can’t effectively use Cobra, Ultra Blazer, Storm and Valor SX (and generics). The remaining herbicides are reminiscent of the late 1970s with respect to postemergence options (switching paraquat for dinoseb). Keeping escaped Palmer amaranth and common ragweed from producing seed is extremely important. Those escapes could be ALS, PPO and glyphosate resistant.
Imidacloprid has become an important component of thrips management in the region. Will it continue to perform well relative to thrips control as we experience resistance development? What will happen with registration of these products when one considers pollinators? One fungicide and one insecticide within the past month have been voluntarily removed from the market because of concerns expressed in the export market. Will this be a trend in the future?
What about chlorpyrifos? Is it all but gone? The yields we have enjoyed during the past few years, excluding the weather-affected V-C in 2015, have been due in large part to plant protection products. No one uses all of them, but along the journey to harvest all of these are used and are needed by some farmers. Moving forward, we may have to adjust our production systems and figure out how to avoid major risk without some of these products. For rootworms there is not an option other than chlorpyrifos. There is some older chemistry available for thrips, but imidacloprid has been very effective. Velum Total is here, but thrips control is derived from imidacloprid in that product.
We will be in bad shape if PPO resistance becomes widespread. I’ve painted a bad picture at a time when yields seem to be at an all-time high for the V-C region, excluding this past year. We need to become savvier at managing pests, especially if we lose these key pesticides. Being proactive in our management and developing alternatives will be extremely important at this point in the road.
Whatever you do, don’t let escaped Palmer amaranth and common ragweed go to seed!
University of Georgia
Considering Reduced Tillage?
The final few peanut production meetings will be conducted in early March in Georgia. The message at the meetings has been pretty consistent that growers need to talk with their peanut buying point to ensure they have a place secured to take their peanut crop in 2016. Storage may be a big problem if growers plant similar acres as in 2015 and produce another big crop.
Another key factor growers need to keep on their mind going into the 2016 growing season is “how is weather going to impact the planting season?” Since November, many areas in Georgia have received rain on a weekly basis. Will this delay land preparation and planting? Will this cause more problems with disease issues at planting and during the year? These are all valid questions and are being asked at many of our meetings.
At this point, growers need to plan on being wetter-than-normal up to planting. With this in mind, some growers will consider taking short cuts in land preparation, such as going from conventional tillage (deep turning) to a reduced-tillage practice. It’s not a bad plan in order to save a few trips across the field; however, growers need to note that yields have been shown to be reduced in many reduced-tillage programs. This may also be compounded in situations where growers have reduced rotation significantly causing an increase in disease pressure.
Notes On The High Oleics
Most calls I receive this time of year are questions concerning varieties. Ga-06G has been the variety of choice for a number of years. However, I am concerned about the amount of TSWV that I have observed the past couple of years and believe that we should spread our risk by planting more varieties. The oversupplied market has more producers looking at the high-oleic varieties coupled with the price incentive. I encourage everyone to not only look at variety trial data, but to also pay attention to the data from their growing region. Some varieties respond differently under varying conditions or circumstances, which we have across the state.
Here are a few insights I have gained while testing these new high-oleic varieties. Looking at the variety data, TUFRunner™ ‘511’ has a lot of high-end yield potential. But yield is not everything. TUFRunner™ ‘511’ is very susceptible to leaf spot. Therefore, when considering 511, I would encourage you to have it on well-rotated land and utilize a good fungicide program. FloRun™ ‘107’ and TUFRunner™ ‘727’ are two varieties that have yielded fairly consistently with Ga-06G for the past couple of years. TUFRunner™ ‘727’ has a better disease package than 511 and grows a lot of vine, making it a good choice for sandier soil and more attractive for the single-row producer because it has been the only mid-season variety that has not responded to twin rows.
Ga-13M is a relatively new variety so I haven’t worked with it as long. It did struggle with leaf spot pressure this past season, but one trait that stands out is it has a seed size similar to Georgia Green. I hope these points will help you in considering which high-oleic variety to plant.
Texas Agri-Life Extension
Respect The Rotation
Crop rotation is the key to profitable peanut production. Peanut should be planted in the same field only one year out of three or, in the best case, one year out of four. There are numerous advantages to crop rotation, including improved soil fertility, reduced disease and nematode problems and more manageable weed control systems. Recommended rotational crops include, but are not limited to corn, grain and forage sorghums, grass sod, small grains, sesame and cotton. Rotations with other legume crops should be avoided.
Longer rotations result in greater benefits, especially when dealing with disease and nematode problems. More efficient weed control occurs because many weeds difficult to control in the peanut crop may be more easily controlled in the rotation crop. Better weed control leads to reduced foreign material problems at market. Crop rotation will also likely allow rotation of herbicide modes-of-action, which will reduce the risk of weed resistance developing within a particular peanut field.
With proper rotation and in-season management, excellent yields can be attained. However, without crop rotation, peanut will not be a profitable commodity. Conversely, crops grown in rotation with peanuts receive the benefit of increased residual nitrogen, the ability to use additional herbicide modes-of-action and similar negative effects on pests and diseases.